Glossary

Acceptable Use Policies

Also known as: AUP

This is a document which details unacceptable activities on the ServInt network. You agree to abide by the terms of this document when you enter into your contract with ServInt.

Apache

The world’s most popular HTTP (Web) server software, and the one which is most prevalent on ServInt servers. An HTTP server, like Apache, is a program which listens for website traffic requests, and then serves the pages to the requesting user. Apache runs natively on Linux, and has great speed and expandability. Apache is maintained by the Apache Group and distributed freely.

AUP

See Acceptable Use Policies.

AutoResponder

A program that automatically responds to an E-mail message, saving time on the tedious task of responding individually to hundreds of business messages. AutoResponders can differentiate between types of incoming messages (such as a request for a catalog, or a purchase order) and send the appropriate E-mail in return.

Backups (The ones ServInt do for you)

ServInt backs up the accounts of all of its VPS, SuperVPS and Virtuozzo-based server clients automatically. With our proprietary restoration tools, we can quickly restore full accounts or individual files or directories at your request. The system saves a full backup once per month (although not necessarily on the first of the month), a backup of differences from the previous monthly backup once per week, and a backup of differences from the previous weekly backup once per day. This provides up to three different dates to restore from (however there will be less than three dates at certain points during the month, such as right after a full monthly backup). This service is provided by ServInt without fee to all of the aforementioned clients.

Backups (The ones you should do yourselves)

Though ServInt does its best to ensure reliable backups at all times, it is not possible to guarantee that backups will always be problem-free. Therefore we strongly recommend that you maintain your own backups at all times.

Bandwidth

The amount of digital information that can be sent or received simultaneously across a connection. More bandwidth means faster data transfer; when more information is attempted to be pushed across a line than there is bandwidth available, it slows all of the data down as it waits to gain access to the communications link. Common measures of bandwidth include Mbps (megabits per second) and Kbps (kilobits per second).

BGP

See Border Gateway Protocol.

Bit

BInary digiT. The basis of computer language – the simplest form of information possible, a pulse representing a single binary digit – on or off, 1 or 0. Strings of millions or billions of these 1s and 0s, taken in order, form the complex code instructions for computers.

Blog Software

Blog software refers to software that is specifically designed to facilitate weblogging (blogging). The software lets users post updates to a blog, allows users to attach content tags to individual posts for organization, and provides a framework for that organization. Blog software is built on top of a content management system (see: CMS software). The most popular blogging platforms are WordPress (see: WordPress), Type Pad, and Blogger.

Border Gateway Protocol

Also known as: BGP

A router-based protocol that allows policy-based routing, which includes factors such as the traffic’s importance in determining routing. BGP is used by hosts like ServInt in our core routers for efficient communication between large-scale networks.

Burst Resources

The resources available but not guaranteed on a virtual product. Since the VPS is by nature a virtual product with many shared resources, your maximum available resources at any one specific moment in time will depend greatly on what is happening on the VPS at that time, and what available burst resources you have at that given moment. If usage on a box changes over time, then you may see any number of different levels of available resources. Yet, at all points in time, you will always have access to all of your guaranteed system resources, and will always be able to maintain consistent system performance as long as you are only relying upon your guaranteed resources.

Burst resources may change over time, and this is just how the VPS product works. ServInt never lets the load get unbearable for a server, but it is possible for a client to realize, over time, as others on their server more regularly utilize burst resources, that they are relying upon burst resources. They eventually may even realize that they require more resources than the VPS has to offer, and that they need to think about upgrading to a Dedicated Server.

The best way to describe burst resource management is by using an example of living in an apartment building. If the VPS is like an apartment building with, for this example, 10 units (the apartment building is the server and the apartment units are the VPS accounts). All of the ‘units’ are identical in size but they share some resources (electricity in this case). In this example, each apartment is guaranteed the ability to have 10 appliances worth of electricity at all times but has 150 outlets in the apartment. If one of the other apartments is not using all of their appliances, you have the ability to plug in a few extra appliances.

However, if everyone else has more than 10 appliances plugged in and running, you may only have enough power for your 10 appliances. During certain times of the day, obviously not everyone will be using all of their resources, giving you the ability to use more. This is, in essence, the same way the VPS solution works. You don’t want to rely upon your ‘burst’ resources as if they are guarantees, but they are generally there if you need them, like overdraft protection on your checking account.

It is possible, over time, for your box to go from being fairly lowly populated to a box where the rest of the clients are healthy and mature. In that situation, they may more regularly use their burst resources, making you unable to use them as frequently. This is generally only a problem if your site requires more resources on a consistent basis than your package allows. In this case, an upgrade may be required, so that you have higher guarantees and are not trying to use your ‘burst’ resources as if they are guaranteed.

Byte

Eight bits, the amount of information a single letter or number takes up; therefore the smallest generally useful amount of information, and the most commonly used measure of data size.

CentOS

CentOS is a Linux Distribution (see: Linux) designed for enterprise servers. It is a direct descendant of Red Hat Enterprise Linux and as such is well supported and has a very healthy and stable development community.

Central Processing Unit

Or CPU. The brain of a computer. The speed of a computer is in large part but by no means completely dictated by its CPU type and clock speed, measured in Megahertz.

CGI Script

A CGI (Common Gateway Interface) script is a program which works with a web page or site to make it dynamic. It is distinguished by its ability to accept input (and give output to) anyone who accesses it using a web browser.

CIDR

Classless Inter-Domain Routing. A way of dealing with the problem that emerged with the old way of allocating IP addresses soon after the Internet experienced mass growth in 1994-1995: there were very few Class-A and Class-B large blocks of IP addresses to give out to new networks. Under CIDR, a block of multiple Class-C (256 individual IPs) are given out to networks, rather than an entire Class-B (256 Class-C groups) or Class-A (256 Class-B groups).

Allocation of IP addresses in the United States is administered by ARIN (the American Registry of Internet Numbers), which forces hosting providers to pay for all of the address space they use. Thus, assigning IP addresses to individual users costs a hosting provider a significant amount of money.

Classless Inter-Domain Routing

Or CIDR. A way of dealing with the problem that emerged with the old way of allocating IP addresses soon after the Internet experienced mass growth in 1994-1995: there were very few Class-A and Class-B large blocks of IP addresses to give out to new networks. Under CIDR, a block of multiple Class-C (256 individual IPs) are given out to networks, rather than an entire Class-B (256 Class-C groups) or Class-A (256 Class-B groups).

Client

In this context, a computer and its user who receive data from a server. When you access a website, your computer does not generate the information itself; your client computer is receiving the data from the server computer.

Applications are often referred to as being client-side or server-side. In a client-side application, a program is executed on the viewer/users computer from code transmitted from the server. In a server-side application, the viewer/user/client sees the result of computation which is done on the server. For example, a client-side JavaScript applet is sent as plain text from the server, and the client/users browser then executes the code for the applet (creating the window, animation, etc.). A server-side Perl script which searches a site is all done using computing power on the server, then sends the finished results to the clients browser.

ClientExec

ClientExec is a software that helps web hosts to manage and support their clients efficiently. Top features include powerful customer management, account creation automation, recurring invoicing, server monitoring, integrated helpdesk and other 3rd party payment processor support including Authorize.net and PayPal. ServInt offers ClientExec as an option for our customers for a modest monthly fee.

CMS Software

Content Management System software refers to both content publishing applications as well as the dozens of engines that power the applications web developers, web users, and content creators utilize everyday. CMS software allows large groups of people to collaborate on, contribute to, and share information on a centrally accessible platform. CMS software allows controlled access to data, allowing an administrator to control who can and cannot read, write, or execute data or commands. Examples of CMS engines are JAVA, .NET, and PHP while WordPress, Drupal, and Joomla! are examples of CMS software that utilize these types of engines.

Code

Program instructions in a language understood by the computer. Examples range from simple formatting-code like HTML code, to more sophisticated tasks like CGI Scripts, to extremely complicated tasks like writing application programs or operating systems. Coding is done in languages like HTML, Java, CGI, C or Perl.

Connection

This term is used to describe methods of data communication: they are either connectionless or connection-oriented.

Connectionless data communications are like mailing a letter: the person you are mailing it to doesn’t necessarily know that you’re sending it, but you still expect it to get there. Connectionless communications (like Ethernet and UDP [User Datagram Protocol]) require more error-correction capacity, at the gain of availability.

Connection-oriented communications are like a telephone call: the person you are calling must pick up the other end of the line before the call can be completed. Connection-oriented protocols (like TCP) generally provide greater reliability than connectionless protocols, since it is known that the receiver is listening.

Control Panel

A control panel is software that is designed to streamline the administration of a server. Control panel software is installed directly on the server and allows users to control and maintain many of the day-to-day maintenance tasks that would normally require proficiency at the command line level of the server’s operating system. ServInt offers and supports the cPanel/WHM control panel.

  • WHM (or WebHost Manager) is the back-end administrative interface to cPanel/WHM. This interface is used for anything that will affect users server-wide. With this interface you can recompile Apache and PHP as well as set up server-wide security settings. This is also the interface where you can create and modify accounts as you desire.
  • cPanel is the interface that individual hosting account owners will see. Think of this as the front-end to the cPanel/WHM environment. The cPanel interface is essentially a sandbox where users can manage and alter nearly anything associated with their individual website.
    In the cPanel interface, users can create email accounts, upload files, edit web pages, create databases, install site software and so forth. Advanced users can also view PHP configuration settings, install Ruby on Rails applications and easily perform advanced tasks such as setting up hot-link protection.

cPanel

See Control Panel-cPanel/WHM

CPU

Central Processing Unit. The brain of a computer. The speed of a computer is in large part but by no means completely dictated by its CPU type and clock speed, measured in Megahertz.

CPU Usage

CPU usage indicates how hard the CPU is running.

cron job

A cron job is a task that is sceduled on the server to run a system command at a given time/date. The cron deamon constantly checks for jobs that need to be run and issues the commands as the user that set up the job at the time specified. A corn job normally looks like this: 31 0 * * * /scripts/upcp This one was taken from a cPanel server and is set to run a command to update cPanel. This cron job is scheduled to run at 12:31AM every day at the server’s local time. The way to tell is by the numbers/starts at the beginning of the line. Each one specifies a different variable. Here they are for reference. * * * * * minute hour day month weekday minute This controls what minute of the hour the command will run on,and is between ‘0’ and ’59’ hour This controls what hour the command will run on, and is specified in the 24 hour clock, values must be between 0 and 23 (0 is midnight) day This is the Day of Month, that you want the command run on, e.g. to run a command on the 19th of each month, the dom would be 19. month This is the month a specified command will run on, it may be specified numerically (0-12), or as the name of the month (e.g. May) weekday This is the Day of Week that you want a command to be run on, it can also be numeric (0-7) or as the name of the day (e.g. sun).

Customer Portal

ServInt’s Customer Portal is the location where customers handle questions regarding their account with ServInt, as well as where they can connect with support. In the portal, customers can find tutorials for the various control panels we offer as well as tutorials on popular software such as WordPress. If you’d like to become a ServInt affiliate, you can create a campaign and corresponding ads in the portal.

Data Transfer

The amount of data uploaded or downloaded from an account (usually given in GB or TB).

Database

A database is an integrated collection of logically-related records or files consolidated into a common pool that provides data for one or more multiple uses. MySQL is the most popular database tool used on the ServInt network, though numerous alternatives exist.

Datacenter

A datacenter is a facility used to house computer systems and associated components, such as telecommunications and storage systems. It generally includes redundant or backup power supplies, redundant data communications connections, environmental controls (e.g., air conditioning, fire suppression) and security devices. ServInt maintains multiple datacenters.

Dedicated

Used exclusively for a single purpose or medium. A dedicated phone line may be used only for faxes, only for modem usage, et cetera. A dedicated server may be used for only one company or one Web site, et cetera.

Disk Space

Disk space refers to the remaining capacity left on your server’s hard drive.

Disk Usage

Disk usage refers to how much space you and your sites are currently using on your server’s hard drive.

DNS

Domain Name System. DNS stands for Domain Name Services and is the protocol responsible for translating your domain name into an IP address. The internet will not function using domain names alone, in the same way that you cannot mail something to someone through the post office using just the person’s name. IP addresses, like postal addresses, are what the internet uses to quickly and efficiently direct web traffic. In short, your nameservers, using DNS, are responsible for telling the rest of the internet what to do with your domain name — where to find your website, where to send email for you domain, and so on. DNS is a standard way of defining Internet addresses so users can identify and communicate with each other.

For E-mail addresses, the parts of the DNS are like the address components on a piece of mail. For example, with joeschmoe@sales.company.com:

joeschmoe is the name on the envelope, as if it were mailed to Mr. Joe Schmoe.

The @ symbol separates the individual the letter is addressed to from the city, state, etc. where it is going (the domain, in computer terms). Domain levels are separated by periods.

sales is the third-level domain (not all domains have three levels; they may have as few as two, or as many as five or six). It identifies the department within the domain it is going to like the street address on a piece of mail.

company is the domain where the mail is going think of it as the city and ZIP code on a letter. All addresses must have a second-level and a first-level domain.

com is the top-level domain, or TLD. Generic TLDs are used in the United States: .com for companies; edu for educational institutions; .gov for government organizations; .org for non-profit organizations, etc. Internet addresses outside the U.S. are identified by a two-letter ISO country code as the top-level domain: .uk for Britain, .fi for Finland, etc. It is possible for users outside the U.S. to register generic (three-letter) TLDs, and it is possible for users inside the U.S. to register domains with TLDs of other countries.

For Web addresses, the host site is preceded by a protocol, such as http:// (Web), ftp:// (FTP), etc. Further narrowing of an address is accomplished by areas separated by slashes. For example: www.company.com/sales/products/warranty.html might be the address for a company’s description of a warranty for one of its products.

Domain Name System

Or DNS. A standard way of defining Internet addresses so users can identify and communicate with each other.

For E-mail addresses, the parts of the DNS are like the address components on a piece of mail. For example, with joeschmoe@sales.company.com:

joeschmoe is the name on the envelope, as if it were mailed to Mr. Joe Schmoe.

The @ symbol separates the individual the letter is addressed to from the city, state, etc. where it is going (the domain, in computer terms). Domain levels are separated by periods.

sales is the third-level domain (not all domains have three levels; they may have as few as two, or as many as five or six). It identifies the department within the domain it is going to like the street address on a piece of mail.

company is the domain where the mail is going think of it as the city and ZIP code on a letter. All addresses must have a second-level and a first-level domain.

com is the top-level domain, or TLD. Generic TLDs are used in the United States: .com for companies; edu for educational institutions; .gov for government organizations; .org for non-profit organizations, etc. Internet addresses outside the U.S. are identified by a two-letter ISO country code as the top-level domain: .uk for Britain, .fi for Finland, etc. It is possible for users outside the U.S. to register generic (three-letter) TLDs, and it is possible for users inside the U.S. to register domains with TLDs of other countries.

For Web addresses, the host site is preceded by a protocol, such as http:// (Web), ftp:// (FTP), etc. Further narrowing of an address is accomplished by areas separated by slashes. For example: www.company.com/sales/products/warranty.html might be the address for a company’s description of a warranty for one of its products.

E-mail

Short for Electronic Mail; the feature of the Internet first discovered by college students that led to its dramatic rise in popularity. E-mail is an electronic letter sent from one user with access to the Internet to another. E-mail is addressed using DNS-based addresses, and is delivered via SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol).

EasyApache

EasyApache is a tool that makes recompiling Apache and PHP very easy. In a typical Unix environment, this can be a daunting task even for an experienced system administrator. The WHM interface with EasyApache makes recompiling Apache and PHP as easy as clicking a few mouse buttons.

Encryption

Placing of sensitive data into mathematically complex, (nearly) unbreakable code. Encryption is the best way to keep information sent over the Internet private; in recent years, advancements in encryption technology have made computer communications (if steps are followed properly) far more difficult to snoop into than phone or mail transactions.

Technically, encryption is the process of changing a digital message so that it can be read only by the intended party. Enciphering is the process which changes uncoded text (plain text) into encrypted format (called ciphertext).

An example of how far encryption technologies like PGP (Pretty Good Privacy) or DES for private Internet users have come is the strong debate currently in the U.S. Congress which will decide whether the government will outlaw encryption schemes that it cannot crack if necessary for law enforcement purposes.

Ethernet

A standard for creating high-speed Local Area Networks (LANs) over commonly-available wiring and inexpensive interface cards. Named after the ether which 19th-century scientists though transmitted electromagnetic waves. Technically, its called the IEEE 802.3 CSMA/CD standard, since a simple, catchy name would be too easy.

The CSMA/CD comes from the fact that it uses Carrier Sense (before transmitting, network hosts make sure that nobody else is transmitting) and Multiple Access (any host can transmit); and it also uses Collision Detection (if collided and lost packets are detected when the LANis in heavy use, hosts adjust their transmitting approach).

Fantastico

Fantastico is a commercial script library that automates the installation of web applications to a website. Fantastico scripts are executed from the administration area of a website control panel such as cPanel. ServInt offers this to our cPanel customers for a modest yearly fee.

FAQ

Frequently-Asked Questions. A list of answers to common questions. There are FAQ somewhere out there for just about any computer-related topic conceivable. Before you go asking questions, check a FAQ, the odds are that somebody out there has already asked your question, and it has already been answered.

File Transfer Protocol

Or FTP. A long-standing Internet system for sending files from servers to clients over the Internet. Commonly used for file downloading through Web Browsers or dedicated FTP programs.

Firewall

A firewall is a part of a computer system or network that is designed to block unauthorized access while permitting authorized communications. It is a device or set of devices configured to permit, deny, encrypt, decrypt, or proxy all (in and out) computer traffic between different security domains based upon a set of rules and other criteria.

Firewalls can be implemented in either hardware or software, or a combination of both. Firewalls are frequently used to prevent unauthorized Internet users from accessing private networks connected to the Internet.

Forum

A forum is an implementation of forum software (also known as bulletin board software) that allows an administrator to create a community of discussion boards. Users can sign up for an account and post articles according to the rules and permissions you allow when configuring your forum. The two most popular forum platforms are vBulletin and phpBB (see: phpBB), both of which are supported by ServInt.

  • ServInt Customer Forum: The ServInt Customer Forum is a forum run by ServInt and available exclusively to current clients. The forums provide customers with access to a strong community of server enthusiasts, exclusive company announcements, and healthy conversation and debate.

FTP

File Transfer Protocol. A long-standing Internet system for sending files from servers to clients over the Internet. Commonly used for file downloading through Web Browsers or dedicated FTP programs.

GB

Gigabyte. Approximately 1,000 (technically, 1,024) Megabytes; once an unthinkably large amount of memory, a Gigabyte (or Gig) is now the most common size of RAM and storage unit. GB is also used frequently to measure traffic usage. Most ServInt accounts are billed in a measurement of GB of transfer. See Data Transfer.

Gig

GigaByte (or GB). Approximately 1,000 (technically, 1,024) Megabytes; once an unthinkably large amount of memory, a Gigabyte (or Gig) is now the most common size of RAM and storage unit. GB is also used frequently to measure traffic usage. Most ServInt accounts are billed in a measurement of GB of transfer. See Data Transfer.

Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet (GbE or 1 GigE) is a term describing various technologies for transmitting Ethernet frames at a rate of a gigabit per second, as defined by the IEEE 802.3-2008 standard. Half-duplex gigabit links connected through hubs are allowed by the specification but in the marketplace full-duplex with switches are normal.

Gigabyte

Or GB. Approximately 1,000 (technically, 1,024) Megabytes; once an unthinkably large amount of memory, a Gigabyte (or Gig) is now the most common size of RAM and storage unit. GB is also used frequently to measure traffic usage. Most ServInt accounts are billed in a measurement of GB of transfer. See Data Transfer.

Hosting Account Owner

Within cPanel, someone who only has access to the cPanel interface. They can manage all aspects of their account and domains, but do not have any access to the WHM interface. The hosting account owner can also create FTP sub-users and Mail sub-users.

HTML

See HyperText Markup Language.

HyperText Markup Language

Also known as: HTML

The basic language of the World Wide Web, the formatting code in which web pages are written. HTML is a hypertext language, used not only to display data but allow easy transfers from one data source to another.

HyperText Transfer Protocol

Or HTTP. The protocol used to carry web pages across TCP/IP networks. A web server generally listens for HTTP requests on its network port number 80.

Installers

An installer is software that aggregates and delivers third party software and/or extensions and installs them on your server for you. Fantastico De Luxe (see: Fantastico De Luxe) is a popular installer for cPanel, while Parallels Plesk and Parallels Small Business Panel include installers as well.

Internet Relay Chat

Or IRC. An Internet service used for real-time communications between multiple users. Formed the basis of so-called chat rooms which became so popular on on-line services like CompuServe or America OnLine. ServInt does not allow IRC BOTs (programs that maintain always-on access to IRC services on servers) on it’s network.

IP

See TCP/IP.

IP Address

A 32-bit address used to identify a unique host on the Internet. IP addresses take a dotted-notation form (i.e., 209.50.225.13), with each section a number between 0 and 255. Each server on the Internet must have a valid IP address in order to communicate with other Internet hosts; however, domain names do not need to have a unique IP address, as long as the server the domain is hosted on has an IP address. IP addresses can be static (for computers connected to the net full-time, like servers), or dynamic (for certain broadband access users, who are given a temporary IP address by their ISP when they connect).

The 32-bit IP address is the current scheme, used under version four of the Internet Protocol (IP v.4); the planned replacement for this version, called IP v.6, will expand the available number of IP addresses.

IRC

Internet Relay Chat. An Internet service used for real-time communications between multiple users. Formed the basis of so-called chat rooms which became so popular on on-line services like CompuServe or America OnLine. ServInt does not allow IRC BOTs (programs that maintain always-on access to IRC services on servers) on it’s network.

Java

A programming language, developed by Sun Microsystems, allows programs (called applets) from moving graphics to entire games to be used on Web sites. Java will eventually be responsible for completely interactive Web sites.

Java has an enormous advantage: it can be used on any platform for which a Java Virtual Machine has been written a user using Windows, Macintosh or Unix can utilize the same Java applet. Both of the most popular current Web browsers, Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer, have incorporated Java-awareness into their system

JavaScript

A computer language, designed to work in sync with HTML to create simple interactivity, technically called ECMA Script. It was created by Netscape, using the syntax of Java (and possessing only a tiny subset of Java’s capabilities).

Kbps

Kilobits per Second. Thousands of bits per second.

Kernel

In computing, the kernel is the central component of most computer operating systems; it is a bridge between applications and the actual data processing done at the hardware level. When using Virtuozzo Containers, a shared kernel is used, and therefore individual VEs cannot make kernel modifications.

Kilobits per Second

Or Kbps. Thousands of bits per second.

KiloByte

Or KB. Approximately 1,000 (technically 1,024) bytes of information. KiloBytes are a commonly-used frame of reference for small computer file sizes.

Latency

The time delay, or lag, that data experiences passing through the network. When a packet passes through a switch or router, it experiences latency; the more network checkpoints it passes through, the greater the latency. Typical latency for passing through an Ethernet switch is 20 to 100 milliseconds; and routers, 1000 milliseconds.

Linux

Linux is an open source (see: Open Source) operating system. There are many different versions of Linux that are tailored to fit specific needs. These individual versions, known as distributions, are generally free to download and use. Linux is the most popular operating system for servers and competes directly with FreeBSD, Windows Server, Solaris, and Mac OS X Server.

Mailserver

A mailserver is a computer process or software agent that transfers electronic mail messages from one computer to another. Each ServInt hosting account operates some type of mailserver by default.

Managed Services

What managed Services means to ServInt is that we answer your questions, and help in any way we can relating to everything installed and delivered with your account, including the integrity of your data (we’ll restore it without charge if you experience even a full data loss). We can also patch and upgrade the OS, as well as primary applications such as Apache, PHP, and MySQL when necessary.

While we support all standard server applications, we’re unable to support every existing third-party application – there are just too many for any provider to know and handle.

But we do our best to never leave you hanging. We can suggest alternatives or refer you to possible sources of help, like the ServInt Customer Forums.

Managed Services Team

Or MST. ServInt’s technical support team, which operates out of ServInt’s Network Operations Center (NOC). The support team monitors client services 24/7 and is here to respond to technical queries at all times.

MB

MegaByte. Approximately 1,000 (technically 1,024) KiloBytes of information. Megabytes are a commonly-used frame of reference for computer memory (RAM) and storage (hard disk) sizes.

Mbps

Megabits per Second. Thousands of Kilobits per second. Mbps are used as the standard speed measure for the high-speed dedicated lines and equipment used by professional Internet companies, hundreds of times faster than personal-use equipment.

Megabits per Second

Or Mbps. Thousands of Kilobits per second. Mbps are used as the standard speed measure for the high-speed dedicated lines and equipment used by professional Internet companies, hundreds of times faster than personal-use equipment.

MegaByte

Or MB. Approximately 1,000 (technically 1,024) KiloBytes of information. Megabytes are a commonly-used frame of reference for computer memory (RAM) and storage (hard disk) sizes.

MegaHertz

Or MHz. Millions of operations per second. This is the most-commonly used frame of reference for CPU processor speeds.

MHz

MegaHertz. Millions of operations per second. This is the most-commonly used frame of reference for CPU processor speeds.

Migration

To move data from one database to another, or to move a website or websites from one server to another.

MST

Managed Services Team. ServInt’s technical support team, which operates out of ServInt’s Network Operations Center (NOC). The support team monitors client services 24/7 and is here to respond to technical queries at all times.

MySQL

MySQL is a relational database management system that runs as a server providing multi-user access to a number of databases. MySQL comes preinstalled by default on all ServInt accounts.

Nameservers

A nameserver consists of a program or computer server that implements a name-service protocol. It maps a human-recognizable identifier to a system-internal, often numeric, identification or addressing component.

The most prominent types of name servers in operation today are the nameservers of the Domain Name System (DNS), one of the two principal name spaces of the Internet. The most important function of these DNS servers is the translation (resolution) of humanly memorable domain names and hostnames into the corresponding numeric Internet Protocol (IP) addresses, the second principle Internet name space, used to identify and locate computer systems and resources on the Internet.

Netiquette

A general set of rules for polite on-line behavior, accepted and promulgated by the Internet-using community. Spamming, flaming and off-topic posts are examples of netiquette violations.

Network

Two or more linked computers that can share data. A network can be a small group (LAN, or Local Area Network) within a classroom or office; they can be vast (WAN, or Wide-Area Network) groups connecting sites thousands of miles away. The world’s largest network is the Internet.

NOC

See MST

Open Source

Open Source refers to several concepts related to software. Open Source software, in generic terms, refers to software whose code is available for free and can be altered and shared without the need to pay licensing or royalty costs. While developers of Open Source software might choose to charge for software or software related services, all open source software must be free for the user to alter to his or her liking. Popular examples of Open Source software include the Linux operating system (see: Linux), WordPress (see: WordPress) and Mozilla’s Firefox web browser.

Operating System

Or OS. The basic software that interfaces between the computers hardware and the applications and the user. A platform, or operating system, defines what programs it can use and how it relates to the user. Application programs written for one OS will generally not work with any other OS. In the personal computer world (desktop machines and servers, rather than mainframe or supercomputers), the three platforms most often encountered are Windows, Macintosh and Linux. Linux is is the most popular platform for Internet professionals.

OS

Operating System. The basic software that interfaces between the computers hardware and the applications and the user. A platform, or operating system, defines what programs it can use and how it relates to the user. Application programs written for one OS will generally not work with any other OS. In the personal computer world (desktop machines and servers, rather than mainframe or supercomputers), the three platforms most often encountered are Windows, Macintosh and Linux. Linux is is the most popular platform for Internet professionals.

Packet

A packet is a unit of data exchanged between two hosts. A packet-switched network is one in which larger documents (an E-mail, a binary file) are split up into smaller packets, which are then sent through the network. The Internet is a packet-switched network (the switched refers to the switches and routers which guide the packets to their destination).

The advantage of a packet-switched network is that, unlike a phone conversation, a single line of communication is not tied up by any one message or connection. A single web user does not tie up the HTTP port on a web server; the packets from that user are received and processed along with the packets from all of the other users. Thus, there is no Internet direct equivalent to a busy signal.

The disadvantage of a packet-switched network is that if more packets attempt to go down a line, or to a server, than there is available capacity, all of them will be slowed down (like a traffic jam). Situations like this generate packet loss, which is where packets are prevented from reaching their destination, and must be re-sent. So, while there isn’t a busy signal per se, what you’ll get is very slow connections. Its sort of a darned-if-you-do, darned-if-you-dont situation, but a packet-switched topology is generally the better choice for computer networks.

Packet Loss

A disadvantage of a packet-switched network. If more packets attempt to go down a line, or to a server, than there is available capacity, all of them will be slowed down (like a traffic jam). Situations like this generate packet loss, which is where packets are prevented from reaching their destination, and must be re-sent. So, while there isn’t a busy signal per se, what you’ll get is very slow connections. Its sort of a darned-if-you-do, darned-if-you-dont situation, but a packet-switched topology is generally the better choice for computer networks.

Packet-Switched

A packet-switched network is one in which larger documents (an E-mail, a binary file) are split up into smaller packets, which are then sent through the network. The Internet is a packet-switched network (the switched refers to the switches and routers which guide the packets to their destination).

The advantage of a packet-switched network is that, unlike a phone conversation, a single line of communication is not tied up by any one message or connection. A single web user does not tie up the HTTP port on a web server; the packets from that user are received and processed along with the packets from all of the other users. Thus, there is no Internet direct equivalent to a busy signal.

The disadvantage of a packet-switched network is that if more packets attempt to go down a line, or to a server, than there is available capacity, all of them will be slowed down (like a traffic jam). Situations like this generate packet loss, which is where packets are prevented from reaching their destination, and must be re-sent. So, while there isn’t a busy signal per se, what you’ll get is very slow connections. Its sort of a darned-if-you-do, darned-if-you-dont situation, but a packet-switched topology is generally the better choice for computer networks.

Parallels Power Panel

Or PPP. Parallels Power Panels (formerly Virtuozzo Power Panel) is a powerful and easy-to-use web-based tool to administer and recover personal containers. With Parallels Power Panel, a user with administrative access to a container can easily perform many critical management tasks, while not requiring access rights to the server. ServInt offers this tool to its VPS clients by default, but it can be turned off upon request.

Parallels Small Business Panel

See Control Panel-Parallels Small Business Panel

PCI Compliance

Compliance with the Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard. Most ServInt accounts can serve as an acceptable single component in a web deployment designed to be PCI compliant. However, no single server can be PCI Compliant standing alone, as PCI Compliance standards require different components operating independently to achieve different standalone goals. ServInt can help you to pass PCI Compliance scans, but cannot verify that your specific system is indeed PCI Compliant. For that you should consult an independent auditor.

Perl

Short for Practical Extraction and Reporting Language (or Pathologically Eclectic Rubbish Lister), Perl is a scripting language that is the most common language for CGI scripts. Perl is an interpreted language so its quicker to write and debug, but slower to execute, than compiled languages like C. Perl’s primary strength is its text-extraction and manipulation capabilities, and its very Unix-friendly (although there are versions for Windows, Mac, etc.). Perl is available on all ServInt servers for its customers.

PHP

PHP is a widely used, general-purpose scripting language that was originally designed for web development to produce dynamic web pages. PHP comes preinstalled by default on all ServInt accounts.

PHP accelerator

A PHP accelerator is an extension designed to boost the performance of software applications written using the PHP programming language. Most PHP accelerators work by caching the compiled bytecode of PHP scripts to avoid the overhead of parsing and compiling source code on each request (some or all of which may never even be executed). Many PHP accelerators are available and ServInt can help you find one that works for you.

phpBB

phpBB is a popular open source (see: Open Source) forum and bulletin board (see: Forum) platform. phpBB has a large community of developers and an expansive number of extensions available to users. It’s main competitor is vBulletin, a commercial alternative to phpBB.

Platform

see OS

Plesk

See Control Panel-Plesk

Plesk Billing

Plesk Billing (formerly ModernBill) is a recurring billing and automation software created by Parallels, Inc. Plesk Billing was specifically designed to integrate tightly with Parallels Plesk Control Panel. ServInt offers this to our Plesk customers for a modest monthly fee.

Plesk Language Files

Files available for purchase that change the default language of the Plesk Control Panel so that they can be more easily operated by somebody who speaks that language.

Primary Contact

The owner of the account. The Primary Contact has access to all sections of the portal and can add additional contacts and give them access to administer individual servers on a multi-server account.

Proprietary

Created and owned by a single company. This can relate to proprietary networks (like those on on-line services, which are not accessible to the rest of the free Internet) or proprietary file types, operating systems, languages or protocols. For example, Windows or MacOS are proprietary; Linux is not.

RAID

Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disks. A group (called an array) of smaller disks which act together as a single large disk with software and hardware that provide improved reliability, response time and storage capacity. Generally used for backup or long-term storage, but can also be used as primary drivespace.

RAID (there are five different levels) systems may support any of the following:mirroring (duplicates the data from one drive to another, so data is still available if the first disk fails), hot-swap (a failed drive can be removed and replaced while the system is still functioning), and hot sparing (an extra drive in the array which is automatically put into service if another one fails), plus many other potential services.

RAM

Random Access Memory. The chips which represent how much data the computer can actively think about at any given time. When a program is launched, it is loaded into the computer’s RAM, where it can be accessed. Unlike storage (hard disk space), anything in RAM disappears when the power is turned off. The more complex a program is, the more RAM is required to run it on a computer.

Reseller

(overall definition of reseller)

Within A control panel Resellers are accounts that have full access to the cPanel interface but limited access to the WHM interface. Typically, access to the WHM interface is limited to creating new cPanel accounts and managing their cPanel accounts. They cannot create additional resellers nor can they manage any website not owned by their reseller account.

Root

The account used by the system administrator on a Unix machine. Root-level users also have access to all accounts on the server.

Router

A piece of telecommunications hardware used to sort through large amounts of incoming and outgoing data and direct it to the appropriate server or client. Used by information providers like ServInt to direct traffic between a high-bandwidth Internet connection and the hubs and switches on their network.

RVSkin

RVSkin is a multilingual, multi-theme advanced skin management software for cPanel server. ServInt offers this to our cPanel customers for a modest yearly fee.

Safe Harbor Certification

Intended for organizations within the EU or US that store customer data, the Safe Harbor Principles are designed to prevent accidental information disclosure or loss. US companies can opt into the program as long as they adhere to the 7 principles outlined in the Directive. ServInt is a Safe Harbor certified host.

Scripting

Writing a script in any number of different types of code that allows control of one or more software applications. ‘Scripts’ are distinct from the core code of the application, which is usually written in a different language, and are often created or at least modified by the end-user.

SCSI

Small Computer System Interface. A method of linking disk drives to personal computers or servers. Comes in many varieties (For example Serial Attached SCSI, a.k.a. SAS). SCSI drives are faster than their SATA/IDE competitors, but cost more.

Search Engine

A database located at any one of several web sites that allows an Internet user to search for specific material by category or by keyword. Several popular search engines include Yahoo!, Google and Bing.

Search Engine Optimization

Or SEO. The process of improving the volume or quality of traffic to a web site from search engines via ‘natural’ or un-paid (‘organic’ or ‘algorithmic’) search results as opposed to search engine marketing (SEM) which deals with paid inclusion.

Secured Socket Layer

Or SSL. An open standard for providing secure WWW service (plus mail, FTP and telnet). Originally proposed by Netscape, SSL uses RSA public-key encryption for specific TCP/IP ports. SSL competes with Secure-HTTP (S-HTTP).

Security

Security is the means of ensuring that data is kept safe from corruption and that access to it is suitably controlled. ServInt works hard to ensure that the server provided to its clients remains secure, but cannot control what clients do to or add to the server after it is provided. Therefore clients need to be well aware of the security implications of what they add to or change on their server.

Server

A computer that sends informational Web pages to a client computer. Servers must be powerful, high-end computers to accommodate all the data they are required to process and transmit.

Service Level Agreement

Or SLA. The part of a service contract where the level of service is formally defined. In practice, the term SLA is sometimes used to refer to the contracted delivery time (of the service) or performance. ServInt’s SLA can be referenced on it’s primary website.

Service Ticket

A ticket within ServInt’s customer portal, used to communicate securely with ServInt’s staff.

ServInt Customer Forum

The ServInt Customer Forum is a forum run by ServInt and available exclusively to current clients. The forums provide customers with access to a strong community of server enthusiasts, exclusive company announcements, and healthy conversation and debate.

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol

Or SMTP. The basic protocol used for transferring E-mail across TCP/IP networks. SMTP connections are made to network port number 25.

Skeleton Directory

Just as a skeleton serves as the basis for the human body, a skeleton directory provides a basis for new websites to build upon. Your skeleton directory will contain all the default files to be placed on every new account you (or your billing software) create. This can be useful for customizing a user’s initial homepage or for more advanced functionality such as implementing custom .htaccess rules by default.

SLA

Service Level Agreement. The part of a service contract where the level of service is formally defined. In practice, the term SLA is sometimes used to refer to the contracted delivery time (of the service) or performance. ServInt’s SLA can be referenced on it’s primary website.

SMTP

Simple Mail Transfer Protocol. The basic protocol used for transferring E-mail across TCP/IP networks. SMTP connections are made to network port number 25.

SPAM

Spam is the abuse of electronic messaging systems (including most broadcast media, digital delivery systems) to send unsolicited bulk messages indiscriminately. ServInt does not allow the sending of SPAM on it’s network.

SpamAssassin

SpamAssassin is a computer program released under the Apache License 2.0 used for e-mail spam filtering based on content-matching rules. SpamAssassin is available on all ServInt accounts.

SSL

Secured Socket Layer. An open standard for providing secure WWW service (plus mail, FTP and telnet). Originally proposed by Netscape, SSL uses RSA public-key encryption for specific TCP/IP ports. SSL competes with Secure-HTTP (S-HTTP).

SSL Certificate

An SSL certificate is used for the server authentication, data encryption, and message integrity checks. Once set up to access SSL encryption, your Internet communications are transmitted in encrypted form. After purchasing a valid SSL certificate, your data is shown in a browser to be trusted to arrive privately and unaltered.

Subnet

To ease routing between networks, a single IP network can be broken down into multiple subnets. A subnet is defined by its subnet mask (or bit mask). For example, a subnet mask of 255.255.255.0 specifies that the main network is contained in the first 12 characters, and the local network is those within the last three characters.

TB

Terrabyte. Approximately 1,000 (technically, 1,024) Gigabytes. TerraBytes are a commonly-used frame of reference for storage (hard disk) sizes.

TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. A standard suite of protocols for all computers linked to the Internet to communicate with each other. TCP and IP are different, but are generally mentioned together.

TCP is a transport-layer protocol (layer 4) which provides (hopefully) error-free connections between computers with an IP network connection. TCP is a connection-oriented protocol, which requires the receiver to acknowledge the senders connection before communication can take place; the connectionless counterpart to TCP is UDP (User Datagram Protocol), which is used for pings and other special purposes.

IP is an Internet working-layer protocol (layer 3), which handles creation of packets, Time-to-Live information, and identification of the encapsulated protocol (TCP, for example).

Telnet

A terminal emulator service that allows you to log on to another computer via a command-line interface as if you were sitting at the computer.

Terms of Service

Or ToS. The terms under which your service with ServInt is offered. This is the contract between you and ServInt.

Terrabyte

Or TB. Approximately 1,000 (technically, 1,024) Gigabytes. TerraBytes are a commonly-used frame of reference for storage (hard disk) sizes.

ToS

Terms of Service. The terms under which your service with ServInt is offered. This is the contract between you and ServInt.

Traceroute

A traceroute is a computer network tool used to determine the route taken by packets across an IP network. It shows the path between your location and the server in question. Sending the results of a traceroute can often help our support team analyze and fix problems.

Traffic Graph

A traffic graph is a network analytic tool that examines local area network usage and provides a display of upload and download statistics. The main purpose of the graph is to monitor (and count) the IP traffic on a server. Traffic graphs are available in ServInt’s customer portal, and are used for billing purposes. Customers should only rely upon ServInt traffic graphs, and not individual Control Panel based traffic monitoring tools, to track traffic.

Trusted Contact

The contact or contacts associated with your account that have access to servers that the Primary Contact assigns to them. They can open support tickets in order to maintain the servers from a technical standpoint. Technical contacts can modify or change a server in a way that will affect its billing rate by upgrading or downgrading the server or having additional software installed.

URL

Uniform Resource Locator. The technical term for the address of a website or FTP location. It begins with either http:// (for a Web address) or ftp:// (for an FTP site), and follows the DNS addressing standard.

VE

Virtual Environment. A single user instance of a virtualized server running on a larger host machine. The larger physical host server is partitioned (or split) it into many smaller units called virtual environments, or VEs. Each VE can run its own full-fledged operating system and can be independently rebooted. Also see VPS.

Virtual Environment

Or VE. A single user instance of a virtualized server running on a larger host machine. The larger physical host server is partitioned (or split) it into many smaller units called virtual environments, or VEs. Each VE can run its own full-fledged operating system and can be independently rebooted. Also see VPS.

Virtual Private Server

Or VPS. A server that looks and acts like a single freestanding server to the user and the rest of the Internet, but actually runs virtually on a larger host machine. The larger physical host server is partitioned (or split) it into many smaller units called virtual environments, or VEs. Each VE can run its own full-fledged operating system and can be independently rebooted.

Virtuozzo Containers

Virtuozzo Containers is an OS virtualization solution designed by Parallels, Inc. that lies at the heart of ServInt’s VPS and Virtuozzo-powered server technology. Parallels technology provides 2X to 3X more virtual servers than hypervisor solutions providing greater utilization from your infrastructure.

Virus

A tiny computer program designed to attach itself to other programs, travel from computer to computer and infect them with its payload, which may be merely mischievous or possibly very destructive. Once the source of countless media scares and wild disinformation, viruses are now better appreciated as relatively rare but nonetheless potentially highly dangerous concerns.

A virus is written to infect a specific application or operating system; other users are not at risk (for example, a Windows virus can’t affect MacOS users, and so on). Viruses are common for Windows systems, less so for MacOS computers, and (essentially) nonexistent for Linux.

VPS

Virtual Private Server. A server that looks and acts like a single freestanding server to the user and the rest of the Internet, but actually runs virtually on a larger host machine. The larger physical host server is partitioned (or split) it into many smaller units called virtual environments, or VEs. Each VE can run its own full-fledged operating system and can be independently rebooted.

Web Disk

Web Disk functionality allows users to easily maintain their websites by an interface that integrates with their own computer. This means publishing updated websites is as easy as a drag and drop or saving to the disk as one would do with any networked drive.

Webmaster

A webmaster is a person responsible for maintaining a website. The duties of the webmaster may include ensuring that the web servers, hardware and software are operating accurately, designing the website, generating and revising web pages, replying to user comments, and examining traffic through the site.

WHM

See Control Panel-cPanel/WHM

WHMCS

WHMCS is an all-in-one client management, billing & support solution for online businesses. WHMCS handles everything from signup to termination, with automated billing, provisioning & management. ServInt offers WHMCS as an add-on for its customer accounts.

Word

Description

WordPress

WordPress is a popular blogging and CMS (see: CMS software) platform. WordPress is Open Source (see: Open Source) and available to download for free. WordPress is known for its intuitive interface and a rich development community that offers thousands of extensions, skins, themes, and other add-ons for free as well as commercially.

XML

eXtensible Markup Language. A subset of SGML (the Standard Generalized Markup Language), tailored to the web. XMLis superior to HTML in its data organization capabilities and its formatting potential (through stylesheets).

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